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Many publications that were previously published in print are now electronic documents accessible on the internet. These can not be seen as a uniform type of publication.  How to refer to them can vary from case to case. You have to determine what type of publication the document is.

Generally, you follow the same principles as with printed sources. It is fairly common that the electronic documents are not paged. Then, you have to state the length of the document with the amount of paragraphs or number of screens. Sometimes the publication year is missing. In this case, use last update information if this is available.

Immediately after the title of an electronic document, you write [Electronic] in brackets, as a publication can occur both as an electronic and as a printed document. It is always best to refer to the printed document. The term electronic comprises all types of electronic documents, such as databases, CD-roms, web pages etc.

If the information is available, you shouldl include the same information about author, title, publication year etc. as for printed documents. You must never state only the URL in the reference. Such a reference will become useless as URLs in many cases are transistent. But you should always include the URL that led to the document at the time you used it, at the end of the reference. The URL shall be preceded by the term Available and be surrounded by square brackets < >. At the very end of the reference you shall state the date you viewed the electronic document.

If the URL is unreasonably long, you can choose to refer to a superior page, and then state your search path with / (slash forward) as punctuation mark between the steps of your path. It is important to be consistent, in order for your readers to find the information that your publication is based on.


Author (date of last update).Title. [Electronic]. Available: URL. [Date of access].

For web pages that are not directly attributable to any other type of publication, write according to the following basic model above.

Textual reference

(Grofman, Stockwell, 2003)

(Konsumentverket, 2012)

In running text:
Statistics shows (SCB, 2011) that it is common for young people to use social media ...

Reference list

Grofman, Bernard & Stockwell, Robert (2003). Institutional design in plural societies : mitigating ethnic conflict and fostering stable democracy. [Electronic] In Ram Mudambi, Pietro Navarra and Guiseppe Sobbrio (eds), Economic Welfare, International Business and Global Institutional Change. New York: Edward Elgar Publishers, pp. 102-137 Available: [2011-10-14].

Konsumentverket (2012-11-02). Handla på Internet. [Electronic]. Stockholm. Available: [2013-03-9]. 

Website without date
For websites without giving the date you write in brackets (nd). It means "no date".

Kontakta biblioteket

Ring 0520 - 22 34 10 eller maila
Chatta med en bibliotekarie - vi svarar mellan kl. 10-17 alla helgfria vardagar under vår- och hösttermin.

Contact the Library

Phone 0520 - 22 34 10 or e-mail
Chat with a librarian - we are avaliable weekdays between 10 -17 o'clock during spring and autumn semester.