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Harvard is not a uniform system, it may differ in terms of details. Our guide is based on "Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing" made by Anglia Ruskin University.

The Harvard system consists of two parts, first a textual reference in the body of the text, second a full record of the original sources you have used; the reference list.

In the reference list, you present your references in alphabetical order.

General guidelines

  • Journal and book titles are written in italics in the Harvard system. This is not the case with titles of articles or contributions to journals. In such references it is the title of the main publication, for example the journal title, that should be written in italics.
  • A useful rule of thumb is that an italicized title is searchable in a library catalogue.
  • Place of publication and publisher shall be stated in all publications except journals and newspapers. It is easy to confuse place of publication and publisher with place of printing and printing office, and sometimes it can be difficult to find correct publication year and edition. Make a practice of searching your references in LIBRIS and use the function "Cite".
  • If no author information is available (either individual or organization) the reference must begin with the title. The title is also used as a reference in your text.
  • If it is not clear from the reference what kind of document it is, it is appropriate to mention it. This is done by writing out what the type of document it is, such as Electronic or Thesis, in brackets immediately after the title.
  • The reference list at the end of your text should consist of a coherent alphabetical list

Kontakta biblioteket

Ring 0520 - 22 34 10 eller maila
Chatta med en bibliotekarie - vi svarar mellan kl. 10-17 alla helgfria vardagar under vår- och hösttermin.

Contact the Library

Phone 0520 - 22 34 10 or e-mail
Chat with a librarian - we are avaliable weekdays between 10 -17 o'clock during spring and autumn semester.